The intensive mining of raw materials, especially coal and oil sands, leads to enormous environmental pollution and destruction. Because before an open-cast mine is built, forests must be cleared and entire villages must be relocated. The consequences are the destruction of the original biosphere and social conflicts with the local population. After the area has been cleared, the groundwater level is lowered so that the future open pit mine does not sink back into the groundwater. This leads to the fact that in the whole region far beyond opencast mining, the total groundwater level drops significantly and a groundwater deficit arises. Growing vegetation and agriculture there are severely affected.
Subsequently, the raw material layers are uncovered and huge desert-like areas, overburden dumps and a large number of open pit holes are created.
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